Neanderthals that lived in warmer climates had longer arms and legs. Login with Facebook (3) Femur from Sophie's Cave, Germany (photos adapted from ; SMM collection). Museum employees, volunteers, and interns are encouraged to blog about their unique experiences and … Neanderthal times) and U. ingressus (largest cave bear, i.e. These are not instruments, nor human made, but products of the most important cave bear scavengers of Europe, hyenas. also modern hyena impact mark pictures in ), (b) the margins are convex in cross-shape, and not steep-straight as with drills, (c) the corners are smooth and do not have drill/cut mark signs, at all, and (d) in most cases (figures 5–7), the antagonistic punctures/tooth marks (lower/upper jaw dentition fit) are present. ), who misidentified: (a) the site occupation by Neanderthals, as those of Aurignacians , (b) the bone, by rotating it upside down (see ), the 180° rotation of which is corrected herein (figure 5a), (c) the general bone taphonomy of cave bear bones, and (d) carnivore jaw functions, especially hyenas, correctly presented herein (figure 2). It is no wonder then that further incorrectness about cave bear bone taphonomy at Divje Babe Cave 1 was published (cf. Razprave IV. This strategy is demonstrated, herein in detail, on cave bear femora destruction (especially material from Weiße Kuhle Cave, Germany), which is presented in three stages and for different aged individuals—cubs (less than 1 year), subadults (1–2 years) and adults. (a) Cranial view, (b) detail of the cranial tooth mark holes, (c) caudal view, (d) detail of the caudal tooth mark holes, (e) reconstruction refitting of the P-teeth into the cranial and caudal tooth pits, demonstrating exact fitting and two overlapping diagonal tooth marks (GTCP collection). The first ‘Neanderthal cave bear bone flute’ from the Middle Palaeolithic was believed to have been discovered in the 1920s from Potočka Zijalka Jama Cave (i.e. Hyenas produced round–oval puncture marks in cub femora only by the bone-crushing premolar teeth of both upper and lower jaw. I. Geology and palaeontology. In stage 3, subadult cave bear femora already started to crush, which is demonstrated from at least one example from Hermann's Cave (figure 5(6)). Eine oberpleistozäne Population von Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss 1823) aus dem eiszeitlichen Fleckenhyänenhorst Perick-Höhlen von Hemer (Sauerland, NW Deutschland) und ihr Kannibalismus. Microscopic analysis (cf. ). Those indeed also left, in some cases, round–oval, larger punctures in cave bear bones, but with their canines only in soft spongiosa (pelvis, vertebrae), and never in any bone shaft compacta. Continuous documentation of destruction stages of cave bear (U.s. subsp. Carnivore puncture holes in cave bear (U. s. subsp. Doubts aired over Neandertal bone ‘flute’. ‘bone flute holotype’ figure 5(4)). Figure 4. For some the results are not that surprising. figure 2). Examples of the destruction stages of femora of cave bear cubs, subadult to adult cave bears (U. s. subsp. Bone Flutes and Whistles - These are also an old style of flute made by ancient people of the American Southwest. The bone crusher of longbones was only the Ice Age spotted hyena, which produced round/oval puncture marks on cave bear cub bones by the bone crushing premolar teeth, i.e. Puncture holes are produced by canines (in cranium), whereas the breakage of the left mandible is the result of hyena premolar cracking teeth. 2.1. Playing the Neanderthal Bone Flute Music Image via Wikipedia: The Divje Babe flute is said to be the oldest musical instrument we know of, although this is somewhat controversial. Actually, some remains had been found earlier, but not recognised as a separate species from us. No such cut/drill marks were found within the herein figured material. List of fossil faunal remains from Potočka zijalka (Slovenia). Dated and tested independently by two laboratories, in England and Germany, the artifacts are authentic products of the Homo sapiens Aurignacian archaeological culture, made in between 43,000 and 35,000 years ago. figures 4–7). The Aurignacian lithic material appears also together with cave bear remains . New perspectives on the beginnings of music: archaeological and musicological analysis of a Middle Paleolithic bone ‘flute’. Subadult cave bear femora initially flaked (femur from Hermann's Cave, Germany). This main Late Pleistocene bone destructor in Europe is known recently with more than 150 den sites (95% are cave sites) all over Europe. The first ‘Neanderthal cave bear bone flute’ from the Middle Palaeolithic was... 2.2 The long discussed Slovenian punctured cave bear cub bone find. In two cases, old breakages are demonstrated on refitted femur shafts of cubs (figure 6(10–11)), and one subadult/adult shaft (figure 7(5)); in all cases the fragments have even different colours and were embedded after crushing in different sediment types/layers. Puncture holes are produced by canines (in cranium), whereas the breakage of the left mandible is the result of hyena premolar cracking teeth. tooth with rubbed or damaged tip or slight impact (PAL collection). The only absolute date was made solely on a cave bear bone, the ‘bone flute’, whose age would date into the Neanderthal or ‘cave bear den’ time period. Niko Borish is a Teen Volunteer in the Education Department. (3) Cut of proximal joint (U. s. eremus) demonstrated at a femur from the Keppler Cave, Germany, cranial (SMM collection). The results indicate that 'Neanderthal bone flutes' do not show marks made by stone drills, but rather, the circular holes are the result of Ice Age hyenas’ teeth, which were strong enough to puncture the soft bones of juvenile bears. The Engis child from Belgiumwas the first Neanderthal discovered, in 1829. [3,12–21]; figures 1 and 2), where always large amounts of damaged and also punctured cave bear bones are present, such as figured with many new examples herein for the northern German Weiße Kuhle Cave and other cave bear dens (figures 3–7). Cave bear metapodials from Divje Babe Cve 1. Oase Cave material was studied in the Institute Emil Racovita, Romania (IR). Although the Divje Babe bone does date back to Neanderthal times, the study points out that several other artefacts similar to it do not. A skull cap was first discovered, followed by two femurs, five arm bones, part of the left pelvis, and fragments of a shoulder blade and ribs. details in ). VIEW more from this CONTRIBUTOR. impact circles, cf. ) restudy of the bone excluded Ice Age hyenas, arguing with ‘abnormal biting or chewing behaviour using their canine teeth’ (cf. The bone crusher of longbones was only the Ice Age spotted hyena, which produced round/oval puncture marks on cave bear cub bones by the bone crushing premolar teeth, i.e. All herein figured cub femora have, different from drill-holes, distinct characters (figures 5–7): (a) the holes are not fully round, instead oval-shaped, and beside the hole (see also ) a breakage-arch indicates an ‘impact’, rather than drilling (cf. ‘Pseudo-bone flutes’ are not in Middle Palaeolithic archaeological, but of Late Palaeolithic and cave bear den context with large carnivore influence. ). The study, authored by paleobiologist Cajus Diedrich and published in the journal Royal Society Open Science, examined prehistoric animal remains and bone breakage patterns in 15 cave locations in an effort to put the longstanding flute debate to rest. On cub femora, which are not well calcified and elastic-spongious in the compacta, hyenas produced in many cases only holes with their premolar bone crushing teeth (mainly P3) due to unsuccessful bone crushing (femur from Oase Cave, Romania). : X-ray computed microtomography of the Divje Babe flute. Indeed, some are naturally weather-cracked. In this cave, cave bear hunts by Cro-Magnon humans seem to be indicated on a cave bear shoulder blade pathology (large diagonal impact hole, partly healed diagonal hole) that seems to have been made by a probable Mladeč projectile bone point . Hyenas and other carnivores are rarely found at the ‘scavenging sites’, including caves and cave bear dens, because they are only found there when they occupied the cave entrances as (a) cub raising, (b) communal or (c) prey depot dens (cf. indicator of absence of hyenas in alpine regions, and proof of holes made only by hyenas which are found only in middle high elevated mountain regions ). Jewelry, musical instruments and exotic objects from the Hungarian Palaeolithic. Material studies of the Zoolithen Cave were allowed by PD Dr O. Hampe (Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität Berlin), whereas cave exploration and bone work in the cave was mainly supervised by M. Conrad (Fränkische Höhlen- und Karst Forscher). Nove analize piscali iz Divji bab I (Slovenija). It was discovered by archaeologists in a cave near the Idrijca River in 1995. eremus (smallest cave bear) and spelaeus (i.e. The number of holes, he says, … Other authors doubted the ‘flute’ and human origin however (e.g. [1,7,9], or deeper in caves due to cave bear hunt . Such antagonistic tooth marks are found often at different medium-sized hyena prey bones including their own species femora or even Neanderthal femora [19,20], also documented in the modern actualistic spotted hyena bone accumulation record [61–63]. The research was sponsored by the Private Research Institute PaleoLogic (www.paleologic.eu), which runs the ‘European Ice Age spotted hyena project’. Mokriška jama, nova visokoalpska aurignaška postaja v Jugoslaviji. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://www.scholoxy.org/journals/science-chronicles/IceAge_spotted_hyena-article.php, http://www.webster.sk.ca/Greenwich/fl-compl.htm, small cave bear den/Aurignacian camp site, large hyena den at entrance (cub raising, communal den type), large cave bear den (, large cave bear den/Aurignacian camp site, cave bear hunting site, large cave bear den/hyena den at side branch, large cave bear den/short-term hyena den at entrance, large cave bear den/short-term wolf and ?hyena den at entrance, large cave bear den/Aurignacian skull find site, large cave bear den, short-term hyena den at entrance. [33,70,71]). In this contribution, not only sole carnivore damage can be demonstrated on all previously published ‘pseudo-bone flutes’, which were already revised in some cases [4,16] (figure 2). Table 1.Studied and from literature compiled cave bear, hyena, wolf den sites with pseudo-bone flutes (i.e. U. s. eremus, U. s. spelaeussensu taxonomy of Stiller et al. The Neanderthal flute of Divje Babe In 1995, Ivan Turk and his team discovered the oldest known flute in a bear cave called Divje Babe (‘wild woman’). Ignoring the top predator bone damage on Ice Age animal bones, again the pseudo-bone flute was not only ‘confirmed’, even more bone flute finds were added by the same Slovenian author (cf. Ice Age spotted hyenas as Neanderthal exhumers and scavengers in Europe. Studied and referred Late Pleistocene (MIS3–5d) European cave sites with ‘Palaeolithic cave bear pseudo-bone flutes’, and compared cave bear dens with hyena influence (hyena palaeobiogeography of 150 sites ). Potok Cave), Slovenia .This was a larger cave bear den (cf. In 1996, excavation of a Neanderthal cave site in northwestern Slovenia uncovered, what appears to be, the section of a transverse flute made from the femur bone of a young bear. Cave bear bones and archaeological layers are therefore not exactly isochronous in several cases (even mixed due to possibly bioturbation by cave bears building their nests, or burrowing porcupines or digging Ice Age spotted hyenas; cf. Did neanderthals play music? This unusual musical instrument, neither a flute nor a whistle, was cemented near the remains of a 50.000 – 60.000 years old Neanderthal fire pit, made from the thigh bone of a young cave bear into which the Neanderthal drilled three holes and made a sharpened rim for the mouthpiece using tools made of bone and stone. Cave bear scavenging models in larger cave bear den caves (here Zoolithen Cave, Germany) for all three top predators that hunted, killed and scavenged on cave bears all over Europe within caves in boreal forest palaeoenvironments. O'odham Style Flutes - This style of flute comes from the People of Southern Arizona. Cave bear at the Divje Babe I site: taphonomic-stratigraphics analysis. There are further arguments for the hyena origin on longbone shaft punctures found similar to radius and tibia cub shafts which are similar to femur shaft cross section, but stronger in their compacta in this animal age stage (figure 4). Herein the bone damage stages 1–3 (1, chewed joint; 2, shaft; 3, fragments) are presented in detail for cave bear femora of cubs, subadult and adult cave bears. Did Neanderthals play music? Rezultati računalniske tomografije najstarejše domnevne piščali iz Divjih bab I (Slovenija): prispevek k teoriji luknjanja kosti. Prey deposits and den sites of the Upper Pleistocene hyena Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss, 1823) in horizontal and vertical caves of the Bohemian Karst (Czech Republic). Puncture marks of premolar teeth are only present in cub femur bones, owing to slight phosphatic calcification of the shaft. There, damage on cave bear bones is now well known and reported in several publications (e.g. At least, very correctly, the ‘holes’ were mostly discussed to be of ‘carnivore chewing damage’ origin (cf. figure 2). Neanderthal flute: oldest musical instrument: matches notes of do, re, mi scale: musicological analysis. (i.e. subsp.)  was incorrectly presented, using only one lower jaw premolar, although the bone crushing triangle consists of three teeth (figure 2). We know of at least 36 instances where Neanderthals buried their dead, often with flowers and other items suggesting religious ceremony. With increasing calcification of the shaft compacta, spiral breakage and sometimes back flaking patterns occur. The cave bear bones with round–oval, larger puncture marks can be well attributed solely to the main cave bear scavenger of Europe—the Ice Age spotted hyena Crocuta crocuta spelaea. Figure 8. First, from the literature available, ‘bone flutes’ were compiled and reinterpreted herein with new drawings (figure 5 and table 1). Upper Pleistocene palaeolithic site in Slovenia. The exact carnivore was never estimated, even by newer and fully controversial studies by Turk et al. Small parallel rectangular scratches on the pseudo-bone flute of Divje Babe Cave 1 were misinterpreted as cut marks (cf. figures 5 and 6, and e.g. Cracking and nibbling marks as indicators for the Upper Pleistocene spotted hyaena as a scavenger of cave bear (Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller 1794) carcasses in the Perick Caves den of Northwest Germany. ). H.-W. Weber (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Höhle und Karst Hemer e.V.) You, our viewers, are passionate about these stories we tell. Finally, I thank Dr J.R. Ardèvol and an unknown reviewer for the review of the first draft. definitions and discussions in [4,14,18–20,20,21,54,74]. The Late Pleistocene spotted hyena Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss 1823) population from the Zoolithen Cave at Gailenreuth (Bavaria, South Germany)—a hyena cub rising den of specialized cave bear scavengers in Boreal Forest environments of Central Europe. Late Pleistocene leopards across Europe—most northern European population, highest elevated records in the Alps, complete skeletons in the Dinarids and comparison to the Ice Age cave art. Bone Flutes: (Form and Function:) Bone flutes are one of the oldest known deliberately made musical instruments. Sources of variations in carnivore tooth-mark frequencies in a modern spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) assemblage, Amboseli Park, Kenya. and U. ingressus) cub femora (less than 1 year individual age) from various European large cave bear den sites. 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And resemble modern instruments hunters in Europe, hyenas new findings withering away—25000 years of genetic decline preceded bear.